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Fire Risk Assessment Process: Evaluating Risks and the People at Risk

Fire risk assessments are a crucial component of fire safety legislation in the UK. They identify potential fire hazards, determine who may be at risk, and establish measures to mitigate or remove those risks. Through a systematic examination of premises, a fire risk assessment aims to ensure the safety of everyone present, particularly vulnerable individuals.


Fire risk assessment

Identifying Fire Hazards


The first step in the fire risk assessment process is identifying potential fire hazards. A hazard is anything that has the potential to cause harm. In the context of fire safety, these hazards are primarily categorised into three core elements that can contribute to a fire: sources of ignition, fuel, and oxygen. Familiar ignition sources include electrical equipment, heating appliances, and smoking materials. Fuels can be anything from paper and textiles to flammable chemicals. Oxygen sources can include natural ventilation or specific industrial processes.


Sources of Ignition


Sources of ignition are materials or actions that can spark a fire. They are the most critical elements to identify, as eliminating these can often prevent fires from occurring in the first place. Critical sources of ignition include:


  • Electrical Equipment: Faulty wiring, overloaded sockets, and malfunctioning electrical appliances can all be potential ignition sources. Regular maintenance and PAT (Portable Appliance Testing) can minimise these risks.

  • Heating Appliances: Heaters, boilers, and furnaces must be properly installed, maintained, and clear of combustible materials.

  • Smoking Materials: These include cigarettes, cigars, lighters, and matches. Areas, where smoking is allowed should be controlled and equipped with appropriate extinguishing agents like sand buckets or ashtrays.

  • Hot Work: Activities such as welding or cutting metal can generate sparks and must be conducted with adequate safety measures.

  • Cooking Equipment: In commercial kitchens, ovens, stoves, and fryers represent significant ignition sources and should always be supervised during operation.


Fuel Sources


Anything that can burn is considered a fuel source. In the event of a fire, these materials support combustion and allow the fire to grow. Common fuels found in workplaces include:


  • Paper and Cardboard: Often found as clutter, waste material, or storage that can easily catch fire.

  • Textiles and Soft Furnishings: These include curtains, upholstered furniture, and clothing, which can ignite quickly.

  • Flammable Liquids: Paints, solvents, and cleaning products should be stored in fire-resistant cabinets away from ignition sources.

  • Gases: Propane or butane can pose significant risks if cylinders are not stored or used correctly.

  • Waste Material: Accumulated waste can ignite quickly and provide a path for fire to spread.

  • Combustible Materials: This includes wood, plastics, rubber, and foam, which may be part of the building's structure or contents.


Oxygen Sources


Oxygen is present in the surrounding air and is necessary for any fire to sustain combustion. While it may seem that managing oxygen levels is beyond control, certain conditions and practices can elevate the risk:


  • Natural Ventilation: Open windows, doors, and vents can supply a fresh stream of oxygen to a developing fire.

  • Mechanical Ventilation Systems: Ductwork associated with heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems can distribute oxygen throughout a building and contribute to the rapid spread of fire.

  • Oxygen Cylinders: These must be handled carefully in medical or industrial settings as they can significantly intensify a fire.


Understanding ignition, fuel, and oxygen elements is essential for identifying fire hazards. Once identified, steps must be taken to control or eliminate these hazards. This could mean implementing stricter housekeeping protocols to reduce fuel loads, regularly testing electrical equipment for faults, restricting smoking to designated areas, or ensuring proper storage and use of flammable substances. A thorough inspection of the premises should be conducted regularly to identify new hazards. The key to effective fire prevention lies in remaining vigilant and responsive to the ever-changing environment within the premises.


Identifying People at Risk


Once hazards are identified, it's essential to determine who is at risk. This step helps plan the necessary measures to protect individuals and tailor emergency procedures to their needs. In a fire situation, anyone in the building or area can be at risk. Still, some individuals may need help perceiving the danger, responding to emergencies, or evacuating the premises independently.


Types of People at Risk


  • Employees: The staff working regularly within the premises are at risk, and their roles may dictate their level of exposure.

  • Visitors and Contractors: These individuals may need to become more familiar with the building layout and safety procedures, increasing their vulnerability.

  • People with Disabilities: This includes individuals with mobility, sensory or cognitive impairments who may require assistance during an evacuation.

  • The Elderly: Older adults may have reduced mobility or health conditions that can slow their response in an emergency.

  • Young Children: Being less aware of the risks and more dependent on adults for safety, children are particularly vulnerable.

  • People Working Alone or in Isolated Areas: These individuals may not receive a warning quickly or be overlooked during an evacuation.


Personal Emergency Evacuation Plans (PEEPs)


Personal Emergency Evacuation Plans (PEEPs) are essential for individuals needing assistance during an evacuation. A PEEP is a bespoke "escape plan" for people who cannot reach a place of safety unaided or within a satisfactory period due to disability, temporary injury, or other specific needs. The plan should include:


  • The individual’s specific requirements during an emergency.

  • Details on any assistance they need (e.g., help with stairs, use of evacuation chairs).

  • Identification of escape routes that accommodate their needs.

  • How will they be alerted to a fire alarm if they have sensory disabilities?

  • Identification of persons designated to assist them.


Generic Emergency Evacuation Plans (GEEPs)


Generic Emergency Evacuation Plans (GEEPs) are broader plans that guide the evacuation of groups of people who may not need individually tailored PEEPs. They are often used for visitors or contractors and must be flexible enough to adapt to different individuals' needs.


Fire Emergency Evacuation Plans (FEEPs)


Fire Emergency Evacuation Plans (FEEPs) are comprehensive strategies encompassing the entire premises and all its occupants. They detail the actions that everyone should take in the event of a fire and include the following elements:


  • The procedure for raising the alarm.

  • The procedure for calling the fire brigade.

  • Evacuation strategies such as 'stay put' policies where applicable.

  • The roles and responsibilities of staff during an evacuation.

  • Arrangements for fighting fire.

  • Details on how to shut down critical or operational equipment if necessary.

  • Specific actions for high-risk areas of the premises.


FEEPs must be communicated to all occupants and regularly reviewed and practised through drills.


By understanding the needs of different groups and having detailed plans for each scenario, organisations can ensure a higher level of safety for all individuals present. It's vital that these plans are kept up to date and communicated to everyone involved, with regular training and review sessions to ensure that all staff members are familiar with their roles and responsibilities in safeguarding themselves and others in the event of a fire.


Evaluate, Remove, or Reduce the Risks


After identifying the hazards and the people at risk, the focus shifts to assessing these risks in terms of their likelihood and potential impact. This assessment is crucial in prioritising and managing fire safety measures to protect people and property. The objective is to remove or reduce fire risks as much as is reasonably practicable. This can involve replacing flammable materials with non-flammable alternatives, ensuring that ignition sources are controlled and that any necessary fire doors are functional and compliant.


Evaluating the Level of Risk


Risk evaluation involves considering the chance of a fire occurring and the severity of its potential consequences. This step is not about eliminating all risks but managing them effectively. The following considerations are made during this evaluation:


  • Probability: How likely is it that a fire will break out? Are there frequent occurrences of ignition sources coming into contact with combustible materials?

  • Severity: If a fire does occur, how intense could it be? What is the potential for harm to individuals and damage to the building or assets?

  • Exposure: How often and for how long are individuals exposed to the potential fire hazards identified?


Based on these evaluations, risks are usually ranked as high, medium, or low, informing the urgency and extent of the measures that should be taken.


Removing or Reducing Risks


Risk treatment aims to minimise the probability of fire breaking out and limit its impact should one occur. Here are some strategies to remove or reduce fire risks:


  • Substitution: Replace highly flammable materials with less or non-flammable alternatives wherever possible.

  • Isolation: Keep flammable materials and ignition sources apart. This can be done physically by storing them separately or using non-combustible barriers.

  • Control: Implement strict controls on activities that involve open flames, heat generation, or sparks. This might include permits for hot work, designated smoking areas, or restrictions on using specific equipment.

  • Detection and Monitoring: Install smoke detectors and fire alarm systems to alert occupants quickly. Regular testing ensures these systems are operational when needed.

  • Maintenance: Ensure that all fire safety equipment like extinguishers and sprinkler systems are in good working order and that fire doors comply with safety standards, close correctly, and are not obstructed.

  • Housekeeping: Regularly remove waste and reduce clutter that can fuel fires. This also includes ensuring clear pathways to exit routes.

  • Training: Educate staff on best practices for fire safety, including how to recognise hazards, proper storage of dangerous substances, and correct use of fire-fighting equipment.

  • Inspection and Audits: Regularly inspect the premises for new risks and conduct audits to ensure compliance with fire safety policies.


Organisations can create a safer environment by thoroughly evaluating risks and implementing preventive and protective measures. It's important to remember that risk evaluation and mitigation are continuous. As changes occur in the use of a building, its occupancy, or stored materials, reassessments should be made, and fire safety measures adjusted accordingly.


Record Your Findings


UK law mandates that the responsible person keeps a written record of their fire risk assessment if they have five or more employees. This record should include details on all the identified hazards, the people at risk, and the actions taken to reduce or eliminate those risks.

Recording findings is a critical legal requirement and an essential part of the fire risk assessment process. It is a formal document that outlines all aspects of the assessment, ensuring a clear plan is in place to manage and mitigate fire risks. This record provides a blueprint for current safety measures and references future assessments.


What to Include in the Record


When documenting the fire risk assessment, the following details should be meticulously recorded:


  • Identification of Fire Hazards: A list of all potential ignition, fuel, and oxygen sources in the premises.

  • People at Risk: A breakdown of individuals who may be present in the buildings, mainly focusing on vulnerable groups. This includes employees, visitors, or anyone with specific needs, such as mobility or sensory impairments.

  • Risk Evaluation: The findings from the risk evaluation phase including how likely a fire is to start and its potential severity. This should also detail the methods used to evaluate the risks.

  • Measures to Mitigate Risks: A comprehensive account of the actions taken to remove or reduce identified fire hazards. This encompasses any alterations to the environment or processes, maintenance schedules for safety equipment, and any training provided to staff.

  • PEEPs, GEEPs, and FEEPs: Details of Personal Emergency Evacuation Plans (PEEPs), Generic Emergency Evacuation Plans (GEEPs), and Fire Emergency Evacuation Plans (FEEPs) should be included to demonstrate that the evacuation needs of all individuals have been considered.

  • Responsibilities and Training: A record of who is responsible for implementing the fire risk assessment findings, who has received training, and the nature of that training.

  • Action Plan and Priorities: An action plan outlining the prioritised steps that need to be taken to reduce further or control risks, including any interim measures before permanent solutions are implemented.

  • Future Review Dates: Details of when the fire risk assessment will be reviewed next and under what circumstances it would be reviewed sooner (e.g., significant changes to layout, occupancy, or processes within the premises).


Importance of the Record


Maintaining an up-to-date record is vital for several reasons:


  • Legal Compliance: It demonstrates compliance with fire safety legislation and can be crucial during inspections by fire safety enforcement officers.

  • Accountability: It clearly outlines who is responsible for what aspects of fire safety within the premises.

  • Communication: It is a tool to inform all staff members about fire risks and their roles in maintaining safety.

  • Continual Improvement: It allows for tracking improvements over time, showing how the organisation progressively enhances fire safety.

  • Incident Management: In the event of a fire, it provides essential information that can assist in managing the situation more effectively.


The record of a fire risk assessment should be considered a living document. It must be readily accessible and reviewed regularly or whenever significant changes occur. This proactive approach ensures that fire safety remains a dynamic part of the organisation's culture and operations.


Prepare an Emergency Plan


An emergency plan tailored to the premises should be prepared. This plan must establish clear emergency routes and exits, which should always be well-lit, marked, and unobstructed. It must also provide details on fire detection and warning systems and their maintenance schedules. This plan must be bespoke to the specifics of the premises and the people who use them, considering the layout, occupancy, and any particular risks identified.


Establishing Emergency Routes and Exits


The emergency plan should detail all available emergency routes and exits. These elements are critical for a safe and swift evacuation:


  • Number and Location: Ensure there are enough exits, and they are positioned to allow quick egress from all areas of the premises.

  • Signage: Mark all emergency exits with well-lit visible signs, even in smoky conditions.

  • Accessibility: Consider the needs of all users, including those with disabilities. Ensure that exits are accessible and that there are evacuation chairs or other aids if stairs cannot be avoided.

  • Obstructions: Regular checks should ensure that exit pathways are clear and doors can open fully without blockages.

  • Maintenance: Maintain emergency lighting, signage, and any safety equipment associated with exits to ensure they are always functional.


Fire Detection and Warning Systems


An effective emergency plan includes comprehensive details on the fire detection and warning systems:


  • Type of System: Specify the type of fire detection system installed, such as smoke detectors, heat detectors, or manual call points.

  • Coverage: Ensure the system covers all areas, including remote spaces like storerooms or basements.

  • Audibility: The fire alarm must be audible throughout the premises, including restrooms and isolated areas.

  • Testing and Maintenance: Include a schedule for regular testing and maintenance to guarantee functionality. This should also specify who is responsible for these tasks and how faults are reported and rectified.


Emergency Plan Details


Your emergency plan should also detail the following:


  • Assembly Points: Designate safe locations outside the building where occupants should gather after evacuating.

  • Headcounts: Establish procedures for accounting for all individuals, including employees, visitors, and anyone who may have been in the building.

  • Fire-Fighting Equipment: Detail the locations of fire-fighting equipment, like extinguishers and how they should be used.

  • Shutdown Procedures: Identify any critical equipment or utilities that need to be shut down in an emergency and who is responsible for doing so.

  • Special Arrangements: Make provisions for high-risk areas where more stringent measures, such as labs with hazardous materials, might be needed.

  • Liaison with Emergency Services: Include information on contacting emergency services and who will be responsible. Also, provide them with any information they might need upon arrival, like the locations of hazardous materials.


Training and Drills


Conducting regular fire drills is an essential part of testing the emergency plan. Drills help familiarise everyone with evacuation procedures and can reveal any weaknesses in the plan that need addressing. Training should also be provided on fire-fighting equipment, fire doors' significance, and fire alarm signals.


Reviewing and Updating


As part of an ongoing commitment to fire safety, emergency plans need regular reviews, particularly after drills, incidents, or changes to the building layout or occupancy. Any updates should be communicated to all relevant parties promptly.

Organisations comply with legal obligations and reinforce a safety culture among their workforce and visitors by meticulously preparing and maintaining an emergency plan. This proactive planning can save lives in a fire by ensuring everyone knows what actions to take and where to go.


Provide Fire Safety Training


Practical fire safety training is integral to maintaining a safe working environment. It equips staff with the knowledge and skills to respond appropriately to fire emergencies, reducing the risk of harm to individuals and property damage. The training should encompass a range of topics to ensure that all staff members are well-prepared in the event of a fire.


Use of Firefighting Equipment


Training programs should provide comprehensive instruction on correctly using firefighting equipment, including fire extinguishers. This